It is the basic unit of biological inheritance. A gene is an organized linear sequence of nucleotides in the DNA molecule (or RNA in the case of some viruses), which contains the information necessary for the synthesis of a macromole with a specific metabolic function, normally a protein, by coding through of the synthesis of intermediate molecules such as: mRNA, rRNA and tRNA.
The gene is considered as the unit of genetic information storageand heredity unit to transmit that information to the offspring. The genes are arranged neatly in the two chromatids of the same chromosome occupying a certain position called the locus which is the same for all individuals of the same species. The set of genes of one species, and thus that compose chromosomes is calledgenom.
Humans (and all animals that reproduce sexually) have two copies of each gene, one from each parent, except for the genes on the sex chromosomes. Men have only one copy of the genes on the chromosomes X and Y; women have two copies of the genes on the X chromosome, but only one copy is functional due to a process of inactivation of one of the chromosomes, in ordet not to suffer an excess of gene dosage. The small differences between people (0.1 – 1.0%) in the DNA sequence, is what may make the suffering certain diseases or susceptibility to allergies.
Dr. Juan Sabater-Tobella
European Specialist in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4)Member of the Pharmacogenomics Research NetworkMember of the International Society of Pharmacogenomics and Outcomes ResearchPresidente de EUGENOMIC®
Last modified: Nov 20, 2018 @ 5:26 pm